Arrigo, B. A. & Shipley, S. (2001) "The Confusion Over Psychopathy (i): Historical Considerations", , 20 pages. doi: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 10.1177/0306624X01453005. http://ijo.sagepub.com/conten... Abstract▼ This article is the first in a two-part series on psychopathy. Psychopathy is an elusive and perplexing psychological construct. Problems posed by this mental disorder are linked to changing historical interpretations impacting the current clinical community’s general understanding of it, especially in relation to Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). Accordingly, the researchers provide a thorough analytical review of the major transitions associated with psychopathy’s historical development. This assessment demonstrates where and how the nomenclature, meaning, degree of social condemnation, and prognosis for this mental disorder have changed. Ultimately, this article clarifies much of the uncertainty surrounding this misunderstood psychological construct. Black, D. W. (1999) Bad Boys, Bad Men: Confronting Antisocial Personality Disorder, Oxford University Press, 256 pages. https://books.google.co.il/bo... Abstract▼ Whether called black sheep, sociopaths, felons, con men, or misfits, some men break all the rules. They shirk everyday responsibilities, abuse drugs and alcohol, take up criminal careers, and lash out at family members. In the worst cases, they commit rape, murder, and other acts of extreme violence as though they lack a conscience. What makes these men--men we all know, whether as faces in the news or as people close to us--behave the way they do? Bad Boys, Bad Men examines antisocial personality disorder or ASP, the mysterious mental condition that underlies this lifelong penchant for bad behavior. Psychiatrist and researcher Donald W. Black, MD, draws on case studies, scientific data, and current events to explore antisocial behavior and to chart the history, nature, and treatment of a misunderstood disorder that affects up to seven million Americans. Citing new evidence from genetics and neuroscience, Black argues that this condition is tied to biological causes and that some people are simply born bad. Bad Boys, Bad Men introduces us to people like Ernie, the quintessential juvenile delinquent who had an incestuous relationship with his mother and descended into crime and alcoholism; and John Wayne Gacy, the notorious serial killer whose lifelong pattern of misbehavior escalated to the rape and murder of more than 30 young men and boys. These compelling cases read like medical detective stories as Black tries to separate the lies these men tell from the facts of their lives. Bad Boys, Bad Men not only describes the warning signs that predict which troubled children are more likely to become dangerous adults, but also details progress toward treatment for ASP. This volume will be an essential resource for psychiatrists, psychologists, criminologists, victims of crime, families of individuals afflicted with ASP, and anyone else interested in understanding antisocial behavior. Edens, J. F. & Cox, J. (2012) "Examining the Prevalence, Role and Impact of Evidence Regarding Antisocial Personality, Sociopathy and Psychopathy in Capital Cases: A Survey of Defense Team Members", , 17 pages. doi: Behavioral Sciences & the Law 10.1002/bsl.2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl... Abstract▼ Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n?=?41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with “sociopath” and “psychopath” labels being introduced less frequently. Evidence concerning these disorders, which were assessed primarily via DSM criteria and self-report personality inventories, was most often introduced by the prosecution in the sentencing phase to address a defendant's ostensible risk of future dangerousness and/or to rebut mitigating evidence—although it was also introduced frequently in the guilt/innocence phase of these trials to rebut mental health evidence offered by the defense. Survey respondents believed that evidence concerning APD, sociopathy, and psychopathy had a considerable impact on trial outcomes. Also, although defense objections were common, such evidence was rarely ruled to be inadmissible in these cases. Federman, C., Holmes, D. & Jacob, J. D. (2009) "Deconstructing the Psychopath: A Critical Discursive Analysis", , 30 pages. doi: Cultural Critique 10./. https://muse.jhu.edu/journals... Gurley, J. R. (2009) "A History of Changes to the Criminal Personality in the DSM", , 20 pages. doi: History of Psychology 10.1037/a0018101. Abstract▼ There is much confusion now surrounding the diagnoses of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy. Some individuals still refer to the two as the same diagnosis with different names, even though there is a consensus in the psychology field that the two are distinct disorders. Part of this confusion is likely to be the result of the overlap in the diagnostic criteria: both diagnoses are associated with a history of antisocial behavior. However, it is also very possible that this confusion in the literature is a result of consistent name and criteria changes for the “criminal personality” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. To make sense of the confusion surrounding the two different diagnoses, the evolution of Antisocial Personality Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is examined in this paper. Hare, R. D. (1994) Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths among Us, (2nd ed.), Warner Books, 289 pages. https://books.google.co.il/bo... Abstract▼ Psychopaths move through life with supreme self confidence - but without a conscience. This book is a journey into the minds of these predatory people: it explores their shocking patterns and exposes one of the most frightening social problems affecting our lives today. James, R. & Blair, R. J. (2002) "Neuro-Cognitive Models of Acquired Sociopathy and Developmental Psychopathy", , 30 pages. doi: Neurobiology of Criminal Behavior 10.1007/978-1-4615-0943-1_7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978... Abstract▼ The goal of this chapter is to consider neuro-cognitive models of “acquired sociopathy” and developmental psychopathy. I will first provide definitions of these two clinical conditions. I will then detail the differences in the form of aggression—reactive and instrumental—that these two disorders present with. Following this, I will review what is known about the neural bases of these disorders on the basis of neuro-imaging studies. Then, two models of acquired sociopathy will be described: the somatic marker hypothesis and the social response reversal model. I will also consider whether either of these models could account for developmental psychopathy. Finally, I will consider a model of developmental psychopathy that has been extremely successful in accounting for much of the data on this disorder. Litton, P. (2008) "Responsibility Status of the Psychopath: On Moral Reasoning and Rational Self-Governance", , 44 pages. Rutgers Law Journal http://lawjournal.rutgers.edu... Abstract▼ Responsibility theorists frequently discuss psychopathy because it challenges various accounts of the capacities required for appropriate ascriptions of moral and legal responsibility. As often described, the psychopath has the capacity to reason practically but lacks the capacity to grasp and control himself in light of moral considerations. As portrayed, then, the psychopath resides in the area of disagreement between two philosophical camps: (i) theorists who put forth the general capacity for practical reasoning or rational self-governance as sufficient for an agent to be appropriately held morally responsible for his conduct; and (ii) theorists who view that general capacity as necessary but not sufficient for moral responsibility, additionally requiring the capacity to grasp and respond to distinctly moral reasons. On the former view, we may appropriately hold psychopaths responsible for their wrongful actions, but not on the latter.
This article does not aim to describe the opposing views and argue for one over the other. Rather, I propose to deflate the debate as far as possible, attempting to reduce the area of disagreement. Meaningful disagreement exists only if there are, or could be, agents who have an undiminished capacity for practical reasoning or rational self-governance, yet truly are incapable of moral reasoning. However, I suggest that the capacity for rational self-governance entails the capacity to comprehend and act on moral considerations; thus, to the extent that an individual truly is incapable of grasping moral reasons, we should expect to find deeper, more general deficiencies in that individual's rational capacities. I appeal to the work of leading researchers who study individuals with psychopathy to determine whether psychopaths do represent rational self-governors without the capacity to grasp moral considerations. I argue that this work strongly suggests that the psychopath's incapacity for moral reasoning is, indeed, evidence of more general deficits in the rational capacities required for fully accountable agency. The Article closes with relevant considerations for thinking about any implications for criminal law. Lykken, D. T. (1957) "A Study of Anxiety in the Sociopathic Personality", , 5 pages. doi: Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 10.1037/h0047232. Abstract▼ As compared with 15 normal controls, " 'primary' sociopaths showed significantly less 'anxiety' on a questionnaire device, less GSR reactivity to a 'conditioned' stimulus associated with shock, and less avoidance of punished responses on a test of avoidance learning. The 'neurotic' sociopaths scored significantly higher on the Taylor Anxiety Scale and on the Welsh Anxiety Index." Cleckley's descriptive criteria were used. Lykken, D. (1996) "Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime", , 10 pages. doi: Society 10.1007/BF02696999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0... Miric, D., Hallet-Mathieu, A. & Amar, G. (2005) "Etiology of Antisocial Personality Disorder: Benefits for Society from an Evolutionary Standpoint", , 6 pages. doi: Medical Hypotheses 10.1016/j.mehy.2005.05.027. http://www.sciencedirect.com/... Abstract▼ As human society is mainly cooperative, it is not clear how antisocial personality disorder (APD) persists. The current explanation is that sociopaths are cheaters who maximize their fitness by taking advantages from others. Although this argument is valid, we show here that society also benefits from APD. We propose that the old phylogeny of punishment, the fact of being a full member of society, the frequency of the disorder, genetics, linkage between two “contradictory” DSM IV criteria for the disorder, and the necessity for society to fight against antisocial behavior, play positive roles for society and/or human groups, especially in the ancestral environment. Partridge, G. E. (1930) "Current Conceptions of Psychopathic Personality", , 47 pages. doi: American Journal of Psychiatry 10.1176/ajp.87.1.53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp... Pemment, J. (2013) "Psychopathy Versus Sociopathy: Why the Distinction Has Become Crucial", , 4 pages. doi: Aggression and Violent Behavior 10.1016/j.avb.2013.07.001. http://www.sciencedirect.com/... Abstract▼ The terms psychopath and sociopath are often used interchangeably, but there appears to be some hesitance by researchers in the many disciplines comprising criminology to continue this trend. The problem seems to be that as research has advanced in studies of psychopathy, which is the more common of the two terms, psychopathy now commands a much more specific definition, and this is what alienates it from its estranged cousin, sociopathy. As language can serve to hinder or confound research, it is crucial that these terms take their proper place in brain science. Here, I present how the two terms are currently used in neuroscience and psychology, and suggest how research in sociopathy should progress. Pickersgill, M. (2010) "From Psyche to Soma? Changing Accounts of Antisocial Personality Disorders in the American Journal of Psychiatry", , 18 pages. doi: History of Psychiatry 10.1177/0957154X09102800. http://hpy.sagepub.com/conten... Abstract▼ The history of psychiatry is often portrayed through the metaphor of a pendulum, the profession swinging back and forth between a concern with psyche and soma. Recent work critiquing the pendulum metaphor, however, suggests that it does not account for the complexity of psychiatry.This article explores the metaphor through an analysis of the changing aetiological accounts of personality disorders associated with antisocial behaviour advanced in the American Journal of Psychiatry from 1950 onwards. It is argued that the social, scientific and economic factors which help shape overarching professional trends in psychiatry only partly structure personality disorder discourse. If the pendulum swings, therefore, not all psychiatrists move with it. Schlesinger, L. B. (1980) "Distinctions Between Psychopathic, Sociopathic and Anti-Social Personality Disorders", , 7 pages. doi: Psychological Reports 10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0... Vaillant, G. E. (1975) "Sociopathy as a Human Process: A Viewpoint", , 6 pages. doi: Archives of General Psychiatry 10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760200042003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/arc... Abstract▼ Case histories of narcotic addicts who also were imprisoned for felony were selected to illustrate some underlying dynamics of Cleckley's so-called psychopath and some principles useful in their management. Often in outpatient settings, such individuals seem to be without anxiety, unable to experience depression, and without motivation for recovery; but in inpatient settings, such deficits appear illusory. Once such chronically sociopathic individuals are prevented from "running," their resemblance to individuals with severe but thoroughly "human" and comprehensible personality disorders becomes evident.
In treatment, external controls are important. It is vital both to appreciate the contagion of the psychopath's invisible anxiety and to provide such individuals with alternative defenses with which to mitigate their depression. Finally, sociopaths must be realistically, but not punitively, confronted with the consequences of their behavior. Walsh, A. & Wu, H. (2008) "Differentiating Antisocial Personality Disorder, Psychopathy, and Sociopathy: Evolutionary, Genetic, Neurological, and Sociological Considerations", , 18 pages. doi: Criminal Justice Studies 10.1080/14786010802159814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/147... Abstract▼ This paper examines the separate but overlapping constructs of psychopathy, sociopathy, and antisocial personality disorder from evolutionary, genetic, neurological, and sociological perspectives. Evidence indicates that psychopaths are a stable proportion of any population, can be from any segment of society, may constitute a distinct taxonomical class forged by frequency?dependent natural selection, and that the muting of the social emotions is the proximate mechanism that enables psychopaths to pursue their self?centered goals without felling the pangs of guilt. Sociopaths are more the products of adverse environmental experiences that affect autonomic nervous system and neurological development that may lead to physiological responses similar to those of psychopaths. Antisocial personality disorder is a legal/clinical label that may be applied to both psychopaths and sociopaths.
Yildirim, B. O. & Derksen, J. J. (2013) "Systematic Review, Structural Analysis, and New Theoretical Perspectives on the Role of Serotonin and Associated Genes in the Etiology of Psychopathy and Sociopathy", , 43 pages. doi: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.04.009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/... Abstract▼ Since its theoretical inception, psychopathy has been considered by philosophers, clinicians, theorists, and empirical researchers to be substantially and critically explained by genetic factors. In this systematic review and structural analysis, new hypotheses will be introduced regarding gene–gene and gene–environment interactions in the etiology of psychopathy and sociopathy. Theory and research from neurobiological and behavioral sciences will be integrated in order to place this work in a broader conceptual framework and promote synergy across fields. First, a between groups comparison between psychopathy and sociopathy is made based on their specific dysfunctions in emotional processing, behavioral profiles, etiological pathways, HPA-axis functioning, and serotonergic profiles. Next, it is examined how various polymorphisms in serotonergic genes (e.g., TPH, 5HTT, HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR2C, and HTR3) might contribute either individually or interactively to the development of these disorders and through which specific biological and behavioral endophenotypes this effect could be mediated. A short introduction is made into mediating variables such as GABAergic functioning and testosterone which could potentially alter the decisive effect of serotonergic genotypes on behavior and physiology. Finally, critical commentary is presented on how to interpret the hypotheses put forward in this review.