Abizadeh, A. (2008) "Democratic Theory and Border Coercion: No Right to Unilaterally Control Your Own Borders", , 29 pages. doi: Political Theory 10.1177/0090591707310090. Abstract▼ The question of whether a closed border entry policy under the unilateral control of a democratic state is legitimate cannot be settled until we first know to whom the justification of a regime of control is owed. According to the state sovereignty view, the control of entry policy, including of movement, immigration, and naturalization, ought to be under the unilateral discretion of the state itself: justification for entry policy is owed solely to members. This position, however, is inconsistent with the democratic theory of popular sovereignty. Anyone accepting the democratic theory of political legitimation domestically is thereby committed to rejecting the unilateral domestic right to control state boundaries. Because the demos of democratic theory is in principle unbounded, the regime of boundary control must be democratically justified to foreigners as well as to citizens, in political institutions in which both foreigners and citizens can participate. Andersson, R. (2014) "Time and the Migrant Other: European Border Controls and the Temporal Economics of Illegality", , 15 pages. doi: American Anthropologist 10.1111/aman.12148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ama... Abstract▼ The Western world's borders increasingly seem like a battleground where a new kind of “threat” is repelled—the so-called “illegal migrant.” At Europe's southern frontiers, sea patrols, advanced surveillance machinery, and fencing keep migrants out, much like at the U.S., Israeli, and Australian borders. Such investments have created a dense web of controls that displaces the border both inward and outward into the borderlands beyond it. Building upon recent border studies and ethnographies of illegality, I explore in this article Europe's migration controls by focusing on their temporal rather than their spatial aspects. I show that, in the borderlands, irregular migrants are not only subjected to extended periods of waiting, as migrants often are, but they also face an active usurpation of time by state authorities through serial expulsions and retentions. The ways in which migrants’ time is appropriated reveal a complex economics of illegality, complementing existing “biopolitical” perspectives on Europe's borders. Bosworth, M. (2008) "Border Control and the Limits of the Sovereign State", , 17 pages. doi: Social & Legal Studies 10.1177/0964663908089611. http://sls.sagepub.com/conten... Abstract▼ As has been widely recognized and commented upon, border controls across Europe and America have been strenuously tightened since September 11th. In fact, of course, the movement of certain non-citizens in and around most western, industrialized countries had been restricted for some time predating the advent of the `war on terror'. In this article I will explore the particular use being made in Britain of criminal justice rhetoric and policy as a means of securing the border and the implications of this reliance on criminal justice discourses in the development of immigration and asylum policies. Building on work by David Garland (1996) and Jonathan Simon (2007), I suggest not only that the increased concern over border control reflects a decline in the power of the state in the face of globalization, but also that the adoption of harsh rhetoric about foreigners risks undermining the agency and democratic freedoms long held dear by British citizens. Browne, S. (2005) "Getting Carded: Border Control and the Politics of Canada's Permanent Resident Card", , 16 pages. doi: Citizenship Studies 10.1080/13621020500211420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/136... Abstract▼ This article is concerned with the ways in which border control has been reconstituted through Canada's Permanent Resident Card (PRC). Some questions examined with this paper include: how did the PRC come to exist as a technology of border control? Does it function as a symbol of the Canadian nation-state's imperative to manage transnational movement and access to the geopolitical space of the nation and, if so, how? Through what means does the PRC and the events surrounding its introduction and use facilitate processes of serialization and racialization? Does the PRC, as a technique of reason of state, do the work of producing the category “responsible immigrants”? The notions of “economies of bodies” and “bordering” are important here. “Bordering” opens up the concept of the border from a fixed place to a verb, or a process. Given this, bordering does not only occur at the territorial boundaries of the nation-state, it can also be internal to it. By examining how the category of “permanent resident” is organized, gains meaning and is maintained, this article demonstrates how the technology of the PRC and similar technologies of the regulation of mobility operate as practices of bordering and nation-making and constitute Canadian citizenship. Cornelius, W. A. (2001) "Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended Consequences of US Immigration Control Policy", , 25 pages. doi: Population and Development Review 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2001.00661.x. Abstract▼ This article assesses the efficacy of the strategy of immigration control implemented by the US government since 1993 in reducing illegal entry attempts, and documents some of the unintended consequences of this strategy, especially a sharp increase in mortality among unauthorized migrants along certain segments of the Mexico–US border. The available data suggest that the current strategy of border enforcement has resulted in rechanneling flows of unauthorized migrants to more hazardous areas, raising fees charged by people-smugglers, and discouraging unauthorized migrants already in the US from returning to their places of origin. However, there is no evidence that the strategy is deterring or preventing significant numbers of new illegal entries, particularly given the absence of a serious effort to curtail employment of unauthorized migrants through worksite enforcement. An expanded temporary worker program, selective legalization of unauthorized Mexican workers residing in the United States, and other proposals under consideration by the US and Mexican governments are unlikely to reduce migrant deaths resulting from the current strategy of border enforcement. Cornelius, W. A. & Lewis, J. [eds.] (2006) Impacts of Border Enforcement on Mexican Migration: The View from Sending Communities, Lynne Rienner Publishers. https://www.rienner.com/title... Abstract▼ This important book reveals how the stricter US border-control activities of the past decade have affected the behavior of migrants and potential migrants in rural Mexico.
The authors establish direct links between changes in immigration-control policies and changes in the decision to migrate, choice of destination, mode of entry, and inclination to participate in a temporary worker program. They also point to the unintended consequences of new control measures, such as the increasing rate of settlement among illegal migrants, higher fees paid to professional people-smugglers, increased injury and fatality rates due to clandestine entry, and changing composition of migrant flows. Collectively, they present detailed and direct evidence of the failure of post-1993 US strategy to deter unauthorized entry across the US-Mexico border, and the reasons for this failure. Jennings, W. (2009) "The Public Thermostat, Political Responsiveness and Error-Correction: Border Control and Asylum in Britain, 1994–2007", , 24 pages. doi: British Journal of Political Science 10.1017/S000712340900074X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S00... Abstract▼ The responsiveness of government to the preferences of its citizens is considered to be an important indicator of the performance of advanced democracy. This article argues that the thermostatic model of policy/opinion responsiveness can be represented in the form of an error-correction model where policy and public opinion variables are cointegrated, and extends the focus of investigation to government outputs. This models the short-run and long-run equilibrium of interactions between public opinion and policy/bureaucratic outputs. The article assesses the performance of British government – and, in particular, the Immigration and Nationality Directorate of the Home Office – in the operation of border controls and administration of claims for asylum, for the period between 1994 and 2007. Klepp, S. (2010) "A Contested Asylum System: The European Union Between Refugee Protection and Border Control in the Mediterranean Sea", , 21 pages. doi: European Journal of Migration and Law 10.1163/138836410X13476363652523. http://booksandjournals.brill... Abstract▼ During the past few years the border waters between Europe and Africa have become an EU-policy crucible. In the midst of the tightening of EU border controls and refugee protection claims, supranational, national and local actors find themselves in a phase of legal insecurity and negotiation. This article is based on ethnographical research carried out in Libya, Italy and Malta. It sheds light on the different actors’ practices at sea and in the surrounding border region. It also explores how new parameters for refugee protection are emerging in the border regions of the European Union. The article argues that the policy practices of the co-operation between Italy and Libya as well as the informal operational methods carried out in the Mediterranean Sea function as a trailblazer of the overall EU refugee policy. In the long term, some of these practices will affect and change the legal basis and the formal regulations of the European refugee regime. The principle of non-refoulement could first be undermined and then abolished in this process. Using an approach that combines the empirical study of border regions with a legal anthropological perspective, the article analyses the Union’s processes of change and decision-making on local, national and supranational levels and their interconnections. Leerkes, A., Bachmeier, J. D. & Leach, M. A. (2013) "When the Border is “Everywhere”: State-Level Variation in Migration Control and Changing Settlement Patterns of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population in the United States", , 34 pages. doi: International Migration Review 10.1111/imre.12047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr... Abstract▼ Governments increasingly exclude unauthorized migrants from labor markets and public provisions and apprehend those who have settled in the territory. In the U.S., recent increases in interior control coincided with a reduction in (the growth of) the estimated unauthorized population. This study describes the mechanisms through which interior control may impact migration patterns and analyzes whether interior control has been responsible for the changing settlement patterns. We find that when the effects of labor markets and internal dynamics of migration processes are controlled, policy has a (moderate) negative effect on estimated levels of unauthorized residence, both in individual states and the U.S. as a whole. Menjívar, C. (2014) "Immigration Law beyond Borders: Externalizing and Internalizing Border Controls in an Era of Securitization", , 17 pages. doi: Annual Review of Law and Social Science 10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-110413-030842. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/ann... Abstract▼ This review focuses on the enactment of borders beyond the physical demarcation of the nation, to encompass the entire migratory process, with particular attention to practices in the United States and the European Union. It addresses the twin processes of the externalization (outsourcing) and internalization (insourcing) of border controls, both of which rest on the securitization of migration management. Outsourcing involves a series of extraterritorial activities in sending and in transit countries at the request of the more powerful receiving state. Insourcing includes the policing of immigrants and enforcement controls within the interior, such as the detection, detention, and deportation of immigrants. This multipronged strategy that extends beyond the edges of a territory highlights the spaciality of enforcement and the buttressing of power imbalances between sending countries, on one hand, and transit and receiving countries, on the other, as well as inequalities within national territories with respect to legal status. Slominski, P. (2013) "The Power of Legal Norms in the EU's External Border Control", , 13 pages. doi: International Migration 10.1111/imig.12089. Abstract▼ Despite an increased level of legalization of JHA, academic literature has paid little attention to the role of law in this field. It is the objective of this article to assess the EU's attempt to reconcile its current practices of extraterritorial border control coordinated by Frontex in the Mediterranean with international human rights law, notably the principle of non-refoulement. By drawing on insights on both rationalist and constructivist accounts, we argue that international human rights principles such as non-refoulement are usually broad enough for everyone to identify and agree with and to provide state actors sufficient leeway to interpret the rules according to their interest. However, thanks to the activities of numerous inter-, supra-, and transnational actors offering various and competing legal interpretations, EU member states feel compelled to react by triggering several rounds of rule-specification that have the power to clarify pertinent law and strengthen fundamental rights standards. Spijkerboer, T. (2007) "The Human Costs of Border Control", , 13 pages. doi: European Journal of Migration and Law 10.1163/138836407X179337. http://booksandjournals.brill... Taylor, S. (2005) "From Border Control to Migration Management: The Case for a Paradigm Change in the Western Response to Transborder Population Movement", , 24 pages. doi: Social Policy & Administration 10.1111/j.1467-9515.2005.00457.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1... Abstract▼ Today most international migratory movement is from the rest of the world to the West. Much of this movement is irregular because the opportunities available for authorized migration to Western countries are extremely limited. The main argument made in this article is that Western countries need not, should not and cannot control transborder movement in the manner attempted until now, but that they can and should cooperate with countries of origin, countries of transit and other receiving countries to manage migration in a manner which benefits all stakeholders, including would-be migrants. Ticktin, M. (2008) "Sexual Violence as the Language of Border Control: Where French Feminist and Anti‐Immigrant Rhetoric Meet", , 27 pages. doi: Signs 10.1086/528851. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1...
Weber, L. & Pickering, S. (2014) Globalization and Borders: Death at the Global Frontier, Palgrave Macmillan, 262 pages. https://books.google.co.il/bo... Abstract▼ Controlling border crossing has become an urgent concern under conditions of globalization, leading Western governments to introduce increasingly coercive control measures. Far from eradicating spontaneous border crossing, this defensive geography has fuelled illicit people-smuggling markets, and forced asylum seekers and illegalized travellers into increasingly hazardous journeys.
Drawing on data from official sources, media reports and lists of deaths collated by non-governmental organizations in Europe, Australia and North America, this book draws direct parallels between the border control policies adopted across the Global North, and a mounting death toll of illegalized border crossers. It analyses the political and material conditions driving contemporary border control policies and discusses the processes that mediate popular and official understandings of border-related fatalities. In seeking to account for, rather than merely count, border-related deaths the book is intended to shift the debate about contemporary border controls towards the acceptance of a more mobility-tolerant future.