Evered, E. & Evered, K. T. (2010) "Decolonization Through Secularization: A Geopolitical Reframing of Turkey's 1924 Abolition of the Caliphate", Arab World Geographer, 19 pages. URL: http://arabworldgeographer.org. Abstract▼ Following World War I, answers to the Eastern Question emerged amid the Great Powers' occupation of former Ottoman territories. In this context of “decolonization,” there were numerous contending perspectives on matters relating to both religious and politcal institutions. Breaking from traditional and contemporary scholarly works that narrowly depict the abolition of the caliphate in terms of secularization, this article situates the experience in terms of contemporary geopolitical realities (i.e., the recent conclusion of an almost five-year European occupation of Istanbul and the emergent nation-state based in Ankara since 1920). Employing unique primary sources in Ottoman Turkish, the authors thus critically assess the abolition not as a matter of callous and universal secularization but, rather, as an experience of decolonization. In doing so, they contend that the elimination of the caliphate resulted from an emerging nation-state's attempts both to assert sovereignty and to decolonize from within amid Western powers' endeavours to institute neo-colonial hegemonies over former Ottoman territories while simultaneously extolling the virtues of decolonization and seeking to co-opt the caliphate as an indigenous instrument for the subjugation of Muslims in the Middle East and South Asia.